Whether a particular family is a nuclear family, a stepfamily, a single-parent family, or an empty-nest family, it usually consists of related people who care about each other. Regardless of type, all families also need to be nurtured and strengthened from time to time. This publication will offer some suggestions for improving and strengthening relationships in your family. What Makes a Family Strong and Successful?
The cultural and physical diversity added with the dramatic social changes of the last three decades on the continent makes the family pattern situation so variegated as to defy any sweeping generalizations. This difficulty in generalization bone of diversity was already apparent to many early scholars of the African traditional family like Mair1 and Goode2.
This chapter will briefly explore traditional African family patterns describing the patrilineal and matrilineal families. Some of the major issues raised will include polygamy, tribe, clan, the extended family, bride price and the raising of children.
As the African society has not been static, changes in the traditional family patterns will be briefly alluded to. Lastly, this author will argue that the Eurocentric nature of the descriptions and characterization of the traditional African family patterns by earlier scholars has tended to distort and obscure many of the strengths of the African traditional family.
Polygyny was widely practiced in Africa and it often formed the backbone of the traditional African family patterns. The major reason cited is that with increasing modern influences, marrying more than one wife became an economic burden.
Even traditionally, ordinary citizens could not achieve marrying more than one wife.
Often only Kings, chiefs and men who had wealth could afford it. Polygyny though set the tone and often determined the strength of the society and pattern of social organization of the traditional African family. The Baganda people of Uganda provide the best illustration.
What was the structure of the polygynous family? Included in this same bigger household will be servants, female slaves, and their children. But they are terminologically differentiated from parallel cousins and from sisters.
A total of 68 linguistic terms of relationships are used by the Baganda. The clan is linked by four factors. First, two animal totems from one of which the clan derives its name.
Second, an identifying drum beat used at ceremonies. Third, certain distinguishing personal names. But quite to the contrary, the clan seems to have a more supreme influence.
For example, when a man dies among the Baganda, his power over the property ends. The clan chooses the heir.
The eldest son cannot inherit. Each stage has its own features, some of which are perhaps peculiar to the Baganda customs and system of socialization in their traditional family pattern.
Before this ceremony, the child is not considered a complete member of the clan or society. The mothers bring children of both sexes with the umbilical cords carefully kept after birth. The paternal grandmothers drop the cords into a can, which contains beer, milk, and water.
The following day, the naming ceremony takes place. Boys will live with the brothers of their father and until marriage, girls live in the home of a married elder brother or with the brother of the father.
This is sexual differentiation in socialization in which girls will become acceptable mothers and wives and boys husbands and fathers. Children are expected to help in minor household tasks. Boys herd goats, cows, and livestock. They also perform light duties for relatives. Girls at an early age are taught a wide range of household and agricultural duties including cooking, cultivation and tending children.
But however, after a few years of contact with white civilization and subsequent social change, the custom has gradually changed. The husband could take his wife home if the marriage was thought stable especially after the couple has had two or more children.
The basic family unit among the Bemba was not the nuclear family. But rather the matrilocal extended family comprised of a man and his wife, their married daughters, son-in-laws, and their children.
But this is not an independent nuclear family unit. Where as chiefs have a number of wives, it is very rare to find ordinary men who have more than one wife.If family or relationship problems are affecting your health and well-being or getting in the way of your happiness, work, or daily activities, you may want to reach out for support.
This is especially important to take care of immediately if violence or physical aggression is a part of your relationships. Paris Hilton and Chris Zylka Split, Call Off Their Engagement After Nearly Two Years Together Paris Hilton is single again. The TV personality and her fiancé, Chris Zylka, have called off their engagement after nearly two years together, a source confirms to Us Weekly.
fatherhood, paternity - the kinship relation between an offspring and the father motherhood, maternity - the kinship relation between an offspring and the mother sisterhood, sistership - the kinship relation between a female offspring and the siblings brotherhood - the kinship relation between a.
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