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The temperature of the water is important in determining the temperature of the water vapour that will inevitably be present in the gas collected in the gas measuring tube, however since the reaction of hydrochloric acid and solid magnesium is exothermic, it can be assumed that the temperature in the gas measuring tube was somewhat higher than the rest of the water in the cm3 graduated cylinder.
Assuming the temperature within the gas measuring tube is higher than what was measured by the thermometer measuring from the side of the cm3 graduated cylinder, and the tap water surrounding the gas measuring tube, that means that of the This is because at higher temperatures, water vapour will exert higher pressures, for example: Therefore, less pressure is being exerted by the dry hydrogen gas, and through calculations with the ideal gas law, the number of moles of hydrogen gas would decrease, and reduce the percentage yield.
In the case of the investigation, the pressure that was calculated, and assumed as being the pressure exerted by the dry hydrogen gas was likely too high, and therefore drove up the value for the actual yield of hydrogen gas.
This source of error can be remedied by placing the thermometer directly against the gas measuring tube, so as to get a more accurate reading of the temperature inside the tube.
By doing so, the fact that heat is dispersed by the water bath surrounding the gas measuring tube is avoided to a greater extent, and a more accurate reading of the temperature inside the gas measuring tube can be taken.
As was observed during the investigation, after the reaction between 6 mol dm-3 HCl aq and Mg s had ceased, a substantial number of pockets of clear liquid remained on the sides of the gas measuring tube that could not be shaken down.
These pockets were situated in the part of the gas measuring tube that the hydrogen gas that was collected had settled. Since they occupy volume in the gas measuring tube, namely in the space that was intended for only the hydrogen gas to be collected, these pockets of liquid will work to increase the measurement of what should be only the volume of hydrogen gas collected.
Therefore, these pockets of liquid had the effect of increasing the percentage yield of Hydrogen gas collection lab essay gas collected.
It would be Hydrogen gas collection lab essay to do so since by this point, the concentrated hydrochloric acid will have escaped through the hole of the stopper and settled at the bottom of the cm3 graduated cylinder.
Care should be taken that upon doing so, the lip of the gas measuring tube does not breach the surface of the water, to ensure the hydrogen gas collected stays in the tube, and no air pockets enter the gas measuring tube.
Again, great care should be taken in ensuring the lip of the gas measuring tube does not breach the surface of the water, and that the tap water bath inside the cm3 graduated cylinder is not too disturbed to as to keep the concentrated hydrochloric acid that remained in excess, at the bottom of the graduated cylinder.
This will therefore more accurately represent the actual volume the gas collected is occupying. This means they were not produced by the reaction between the solid magnesium and 6 mol dm-3 HCl aq since they had not yet come in contact.
Even the bubbles towards the opening end of the gas measuring tube would have been dislodged and measured as part of the hydrogen gas collected, once the reaction has started between the solid magnesium ribbon and 6 mol dm-3 HCl aq since the hydrogen gas produced by their reaction would bump into them, and both the hydrogen gas and the air bubbles would be counted as being part of the hydrogen gas collected by the reaction between solid magnesium ribbon and 6 mol dm-3 HCl aq.
This would mean that not all of the gas collected by the gas measuring tube during the reaction of solid magnesium ribbon and 6 mol dm-3 HCl aq is in fact hydrogen gas. Therefore, this would cause the volume recorded to not be representative of the amount of hydrogen gas collected, since it is not all hydrogen gas.
This source of error can be mitigated by performing a similar procedure with the source of error previously listed, except this time the gas measuring tube and its contents will be upright.
This means running a cleaning utensil pipe cleaner, etc… down the length of the gas measuring tube once it has been filled with liquids. However, a procedural change will have to be applied: This remedy achieves two things: The value recorded for the pressure is that of the atmosphere in the region — meaning it was derived from a local organisation tracking atmospheric conditions.
This is a source of error because the pressure may have changed from the time the measurement was taken, and the pressure within the investigation environment is likely not equal to the atmospheric pressure that was measured earlier, at a different location. If the pressure in the investigation environment class room were to be lower than the stated value of If the pressure in the investigation environment were higher than the stated value of Therefore, it can be assumed that there likely were some elevated pressure levels in the investigation environment that contributed to the increased percentage yield of hydrogen gas.
This source of error could be limited by using a barometer in the investigation environment itself to determine the pressure in the immediate vicinity of the investigation. The above sources of error worked to increase the actual yield of hydrogen gas produced by the reaction of 0.
Meaning, the above sources of error alone would likely produce a greater percentage error, therefore the following source of error must also be considered, since it too was at play during the investigation.
The impurity of one of the reactants must be considered as a source of error in this investigation. It is widely known that magnesium is often contaminated with magnesium oxide on its surface, and hence the likely reason behind cleaning it with the steel wool, which is mainly comprised of iron Lenntech, n.
However, this resulted in two things: Since the mass measurement of the magnesium ribbon was conducted after the cleaning with steel wool, this means the ribbon had magnesium, magnesium oxide which is hygroscopic, and therefore attracted extra mass by pulling in the water molecules and carbon dioxide molecules from the atmosphereand iron particles from the steel wool at the time of being massed out Sciencelab, The iron reacts in the same stoichiometric proportions as the magnesium would, as seen by the following balanced equation: However, the molar mass of iron is significantly higher than that of magnesium.
For example, if there were This would work to reduce the percentage yield of hydrogen gas since there are actually less particles Magnesium and Iron that are able to react with the hydrochloric acid to produce hydrogen gas. This is because the theoretical yield assumes the mass of magnesium ribbon is purely magnesium.For centuries, there were only two ways to classify living things; either as a plant or an animal.
Today, thanks to the classification of living things, we can gain a better understanding of all living organisms. Jul 11, · Take the collection pipet bulb saved from Part 1, which is partially filled with hydrogen, and place it on the oxygen generation test tube created in Part 2.
Collect enough oxygen until all the water has been displaced. World’s Largest Collection of Essays! Essay on Solar System. Article shared by. Here is your essay on Solar System! The solar system consists of the Sun; the nine planets, 67 satellites of the planets and a large number of small bodies (comets and asteroids).
At its formation, hydrogen was the most abundant gas, as elsewhere in the. Feb 19, · In this video Paul Andersen describes the science practice of data collection. He begins with a brief description of science and the scientific method.
He details concepts related to data. Essay Writing Guide. Hydrogen Gas Collection Lab CE (6/6) A sample of solid magnesium ribbon, measuring approximately cm and weighing g +/- 3% was allowed to react with an aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid. Fill the gas collection tube with water and invert into this beaker.
Clamp the gas collection tube to the ring stand. You will use this to measure the volume of gas generated in the reaction.